# Learn, Design & Build Your Own RC Airplane | I-KIT LAB | ikitlab

# RC PLANE

## The basic principles of why and how planes fly

The basic principles of why and how planes fly apply to all planes, from the Wright Brothers’ first machine Wright Flyer to a modern Stealth Bomber. Those principles are the same for radio control and full-size airplanes alike.

Although the true physics of flying airplanes are quite complex, the whole subject can be simplified a bit – enough for us to get a fundamental understanding of what makes a plane fly, at least.

### Objectives :

- To introduce students to the basic principles of aerodynamics and remote-controlled technology.
- To help students understand the components and operation of an RC plane.
- To encourage critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

### Pre Requisites

#### Physics :

- Aerodynamics – Students should have a basic understanding of key aerodynamic principles, including lift, drag, thrust, and weight.
- Bernoulli’s Principle – Basic understanding of Bernoulli’s Principle.
- Newton’s Laws of Motion – Newton’s three laws of motion can help students understand how forces act on an RC plane.
- Torque and Rotation – Understanding the principles of torque and rotation can be helpful.
- Center of Gravity (CG) and Center of Pressure (CP): Students should grasp the concepts of center of Gravity and Centre of Pressure for a better flight.

#### Mathematics :

- Geometry: A solid foundation in geometry is important for understanding spatial relationships and angles, which are crucial for controlling the RC plane.
- Measurement and Units: Proficiency in measuring distances, angles, and speeds is essential. Students should be comfortable working with units like meters, degrees, and meters per second (m/s).
- Trigonometry: Understanding basic trigonometric functions, such as sine, cosine, and tangent, can help students calculate angles and distances during flight.
- Algebra: Basic algebraic skills are needed for solving equations related to RC plane performance, such as calculating speed.

### Laws of Motion

**First Law of Motion:**If an object is not moving, it will not start moving by itself. If an object is moving, it will not stop or change direction unless something pushes it. So if the Plane is at rest, it will remain at rest.**Second Law of Motion:**Planes will move farther and faster when they are pushed harder through propulsion. On every acceleration, planes will attain the second law of motion as they experience an external force.**Third Law of Motion:**When a Plane is pushed in one direction, there is always a resistance of the same amount that reacts in the opposite direction.

### Forces Applied on the Plane

**Lift:**A force that helps wings of the plane to fly upwards by increasing the airspeed, which results in lower air pressure above the rocket.**Gravitational:**A downward force applied on the plane due to its weight, which pulls the plane towards the earth’s surface.**Thrust:**Thrust is the mechanical force generated by the engines to move aircraft in the air.**Drag:**It is a mechanical force experienced by the plane due to air resistance.

### How to Detect the Location of a Plane

**Radar Tracking:**Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging) is a primary method for tracking aircraft. It works based on the principles of electromagnetic waves. A radar system sends out radio waves, which bounce off the aircraft and return to the radar receiver. The time it takes for the signal to return can be used to calculate the aircraft’s distance (range). By tracking the angle at which the radar antenna is pointed when the signal returns, you can determine the aircraft’s direction.**Speed and Velocity:**The speed and velocity of an aircraft can be calculated using physics. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector, and velocity includes both the speed and direction of motion. To determine an aircraft’s velocity, you need to track its position over time. This is often done using GPS or radar data.**Acceleration:**Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. By measuring an aircraft’s velocity at two different points in time, you can calculate its acceleration, which can be useful for tracking and predicting its future path.**Navigation and GPS:**Aircraft use GPS (Global Positioning System) for accurate positioning. GPS satellites provide signals that allow aircraft to determine their latitude, longitude, altitude, and speed.

### What is Air?

Air is a physical substance which has weight. It has molecules which are constantly moving. Air pressure is created by the molecules moving around. Moving air has a force that will lift kites and balloons up and down. Air is a mixture of different gases; oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. All things that fly need air. Air has power to push and pull on the birds, balloons, kites, and planes.

### Aeronautics

Aeronautics is the study of the science of flight. Aeronautics is the method of designing an airplane or other flying machine. There are four basic areas that aeronautical engineers must understand in order to be able to design planes. To design a plane, engineers must understand all of these elements.

#### Process

**Aerodynamics:**is the study of how air flows around the airplane. By studying the way air flows around the plane, the engineers can define the shape of the plane. The wings, the tail, and the main body or fuselage of the plane all affect the way the air will move around the plane.**Propulsion:**is the study of how to design an engine that will provide the thrust that is needed for a plane to take off and fly through the air. The engine provides the power for the airplane. The study of propulsion is what leads the engineers to determine the right kind of engine and the right amount of power that a plane will need.**Materials and Structures:**is the study of what materials are to be used on the plane and in the engine and how those materials make the plane strong enough to fly effectively. The choice of materials that are used to make the fuselage wings, tail and engine will affect the strength and stability of the plane. Many airplane materials are now made out of composites, materials that are stronger than most metals and are lightweight.**Stability and Control:**is the study of how to control the speed, direction, altitude, and other conditions that affect how a plane flies.

### How Wings Lift the Plane

Airplane wings are shaped to make air move faster over the top of the wing because when air moves faster, the pressure of the air decreases. So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom of the wing. The difference in pressure creates a force on the wing that lifts the wing up into the air.

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